Ayesha Malik

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Top Stories by Ayesha Malik

If [computer networking] were a traditional science, Berners-Lee would win a Nobel Prize," Eric Schmidt, CEO of Novell, once commented. Indeed, Tim Berners-Lee revolutionized the world when he created the Web in 1991. Now, he is talking about the second generation of the Web, and his talks are generating buzz...the W3C is establishing standards for it, and universities, companies, and industry consortiums are building the technologies necessary for it. He refers to it as the Semantic Web. The Semantic Web is envisaged as a place where data can be shared and processed by automated tools as well as by people. The key lies in the automation and integration of processes through machine-readable languages. In order to leverage and link the vast amounts of information available on the Web, software agents must be able to comprehend the information, i.e., the data must be... (more)

XML Schemas in an Object-Oriented Framework

XML Schemas provide the grammar and constraints of XML documents. Given the increasing prevalence of XML as a data and command transport format in enterprise software systems across industries, it's important to have a methodology when designing the structure of the XML you will create. In this article, I will discuss how to leverage established object-oriented frameworks to design XML Schemas. The three tenets of object-oriented design - encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism - are examined along with emerging design patterns and when to apply them. Since industry consortia... (more)


MathML is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standard that has been created so that mathematical expressions can be displayed, manipulated, and shared over the Web. According to the W3C, "The goal of MathML is to enable mathematics to be served, received, and processed on the World Wide Web, just as HTML has enabled this functionality for text." The MathML API can be found at the W3C Web site (www.w3.org). It has been designed as an XML application and provides two main sets of tags: one for the visual presentation of mathematics and the other for the content in equations. The W3... (more)

XBRL for Business Reporting

Industry consortia are increasingly coming together to draw up XML standards for businesses. One of the major emerging standards is XBRL: eXtensible Business Reporting Language. Organized by more than 170 finance, accounting, regulatory, and software companies from across the world, XBRL is emerging as the definitive standard for expressing business information contained in corporate documents. With XBRL, each piece of a company's reported information is represented in XML and can be searched and extracted depending on business requirements. Given that more than 80% of major U.S... (more)

XML in the Financial Services Industry

The financial services industry spends billions of dollars on IT development to maintain its competitive edge. Banks, risk management firms, and insurance companies have been focusing on XML as a means to exchange their data and to streamline the trading, settlement, and risk management processes. In light of such goals, industry consortiums have been signaling their commitment to XML by creating XML standards for data exchange. This article will discuss the application of XML in building a risk management system. Topics covered include FpML (Financial products Markup Language),... (more)